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        大學通識類課程如何“擠出水分”

        發布時間:2018-11-20作者:董少校來源:中國教育報字體: 設置

        什么是“水課”?在很多大學生眼里,“水課”就是那種上課不需要好好聽、教師教得有點馬虎、課后不需要投入太多時間、考試走個過場、最后卻容易得高分的課,常見于通識類課程中。大學通識教育應如何應對“水課”?


        在11月17日舉行的第二屆復旦大學通識教育研討會上,400位專家學者圍繞“通識教育:以學為中心的教學實踐”主題展開研討,關注通識教育的意義,并就通識課程中的“水課”現象、表達交流課的開設策略等議題進行交流。


        通識教育背負著大學的時代使命


        美國學院與大學協會副主席羅德斯援引該協會2013年對企業雇主的一份調查顯示,針對“對于那些想在貴公司追求進步和長期成功的大學畢業生來說,哪一個更重要”的問題,只有16%回答“掌握適用于特定學科的知識和技能”,29%回答“掌握多種技能和知識”,55%則選擇“掌握專業知識和技能”。


        羅德斯認為,用人單位最看重的員工能力未必是來自大學的專業課訓練,而可能是來自通識課的學習。大學通識教育課程設計應關注基本學習成果而非簡單獲取知識,有必要評估高階學習,以幫助學生了解自身學習質量。


        無獨有偶,北京大學面向本科畢業生調查學業收獲評價,結果顯示,對成績在31%至70%段的學生,“通選課程學習”收獲較大,對于成績前30%的學生則認為“通選課程學習”收獲相對較小。


        復旦大學通識教育中心主任、哲學學院院長孫向晨教授提出,通識教育改革背負著時代賦予大學的使命,教育是培養人的事業,以“成人”為基本目標,強調對全人的培養,開展通識教育是中國大學追求卓越的必然命題,也是新時代人才培養的內在要求。


        上海紐約大學常務副校長暨美方校長雷曼提出,創新通常需要熟練掌握、忘卻習得、發散思維、聚合思維4個步驟,傳統中國高等教育往往重視第一步和第四步,要求學生尊重權威,美國高等教育則更重視第二步和第三步,注重培養學生挑戰權威的質疑精神。


        “現代大學應當集合中美高等教育之長,完善學生學習過程中的4個步驟,實現以培養學生創新能力為核心的教學。”雷曼說。


        以“2+1”通識課程設置應對“水課”


        “水課”的存在是大學生的普遍感受,差別就在4年就讀大學期間,這樣的課程多和少。與專業課、專業基礎課相比,通識類課程尤其是“水課”的重災區,一個重要指標在于,學生課后在這門課程上投入時間之多寡。


        北京大學元培學院院長李猛介紹,北大前兩年做過一份針對通識教育核心課程的調研,結果顯示,學生在課程時間上的投入開始增加,但仍普遍低于1∶1的配比,僅有約20%的學生課后投入時間超過兩小時。


        李猛笑稱:“‘水課’的存在有其客觀必然性,假如學生每門課的課外學習時間配比都達到3∶1甚至更高,那他們就沒時間吃飯睡覺了。”他認為,降低課程數量,是提高通識教育課之課程時間配比的一個途徑。


        與會專家表示,“水課”的存在與教師的教學態度、學生的學習態度有關,也與通識教育課的設置方式有關。盡力為通識類課程“擠出水分”,是本科教學應當追求的一個目標,對此應該綜合施策。


        孫向晨介紹,復旦大學近年從七大模塊的通識課程中共移除70門,占課程總量的33%,其中絕大部分是質量欠缺的“水課”。


        復旦大學為提高通識教育“含金量”開出的藥方是,增加3學分課程,每門課程包括2學分講授加1學分研討,隔周進行小班化交流,強化能力訓練,提升學生的學習獲得感。按照該校通識教育三年規劃,接下來將重點建設50門3學分課程,完成現有通識類課程的提質升級工作。


        表達交流是最重要的通識教育內容之一


        學生給老師寫電子郵件求寫推薦信,由于申請學校截止時間臨近,就在文中寫“請您務必盡快完成”。西安交通大學電子與信息工程學院院長管曉宏院士說:“就算校長寫郵件給我布置工作,也沒有讓我‘務必盡快完成’!”


        對此,管曉宏提出,表達與交流是最重要的通識教育。他發現,世界一流大學普遍開設培養大學生具備讀、寫、交流等方面能力為目標的技能類課程,寫作課是所有哈佛學生唯一的必修課。管曉宏認為,掌握一定的寫作技能和技巧是完成學士學位學習的必要條件。


        西安交大從2012年開始為學碩班試點開設“表達與交流”課,側重科技論文與學術報告表達。管曉宏表示,這門課的最終目標是面向全體本科生開設60學時課程,包括30學時基本語言表達和30學時科技論文與學術報告表達。


        比如在寫電子郵件方面,西安交大“表達與交流”課程告訴學生,要使用恰當的稱謂,內容要簡潔明了,落款和身份要清晰,唯一可省略的是時間,此外要善于運用原文抄附功能、抄送及不公開抄送功能等。


        對學生請老師寫推薦信的“反面教材”,管曉宏給出了可能的修改辦法:“附上我申請學校的清單和相應的申請截止日期,供您安排工作日程參考。”他說,這樣就不會給老師帶去壓迫感,同時委婉表達了“請盡快完成”的意思。


        記者獲悉,復旦大學在通識教育三年規劃中明確,將成立通識寫作中心,開設通識寫作課程,以兩個學分講授課程加一個學分寫作課程的形式,開展小班化教學和高強度寫作訓練,提升學生的寫作表達能力。


        轉載自《中國教育報》2018年11月19日一版:

        http://paper.jyb.cn/zgjyb/html/2018-11/19/content_509064.htm?div=-1



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